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The revival or new birth of learning which started in italy in the 14th century with Dante and others and had spread through out western European countries by the 16th century British Pre-Raphaelite painters
A mid –nineteenth century group of artists who sought to break away from the artificial style of painting and return to the faithful representation of nature, which they believed was the practice before Raphael, the great Italian painter who lived from 1483 to 1520. the Pre-Raphaelites developed artificial mannerisms of their own and did not last as independent group. There leader, John Everett Millais, became the president of Royal Academy

Christian Socialism
A nineteenth century movement which stated about 1850 with the aim of uniting the social desire for political reform and social justice with the Christian faith of the traditionally conservative church of England. One of its leaders was Charles Kingsley(1819-75) a prominent clergyman and famous novelist, Shaw’s problem (unpleasant) Plays: Widower’s House Mrs. Warren’s profession, The Philanderer Shaw’s Historical Plays; Saint Joan, Caesar and Cleopatra George Orwell is the pen name (psuedo-name) of Eric Arthur Blair

His novels:-
Burmese Days: 1934
lergymans’s Daughter : 1935
Keep the Aspidistra Flying
Coming up for Air: 1939
Animal Farm: 1945
Nineteen Eighty Four: 1949
Malcolm Muggeridge: “Orwell apart from being anything else was the perfect twentieth century stylist. His dry sentences with their splendid clarity and smouldering indignation Convey letter than any other contemporary writes the true mode of our times.
Novels of E M Forster:
1. Where angels Fear to Tread(1905)
2. The longest Journey (1907)
3. A Room with a view(1908)
4. Howards End(1910)
5. A Passage to India(1924)
6. Maurice (1971)
Stream-of-consciousness - fiction works by presenting the supposedly random flow of thoughts through the minds of the characters. Interest is less on what happens in the exterior world than it is on what registers in the mind of the subject and on how it registers.
A Fable- is a short fictional tale in prose or verse that is designed to make a point quickly clearly and sharply; animals often act out human roles A Parable- is a short fiction which exists solely to convey a moral or spiritual truth; is may or may not be narrative in form –e.g. Christ’s parable of the foolish virgins Tragic-involves suffering that is in part self caused Pathetic-involves suffering caused by forces over which the protagonist has no control Neoclassical or Restoration Tragedy- Flourished in England at the end of the seventeenth (xvii) and start of the eighteenth (xviii) centuries. It imitates the subjects and conventions of Greek and Roman tragedy, usually with strict observance of the rules of decorum and the three unities of time place and action.
Mystery plays and Miracle plays-were popular in England from the twelfth (xii) through the fifteenth (xv) centuries. Both are religious drama based upon a biblical story or upon the life of a saint, originally presented by a guild of local workmen, often consisting of pageants, with the embellishments of low comedy. Alliteration-is the repetition of consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of words of accented syllables e.g. Five miles meandering in mazy motion. Coleridge’s Kubla Khan With differing vowel sounds. E.g. hearer horror Assonance-Repetition of similar vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables e.g. Please neat Equivocation-using a key word in an argument in more than one sense Hopkins’s Theory of inscape and instress:-
The conception of ‘inscape’ is an aesthetic discovery of great importance which arises from the realization that for the artist a mere vague impression of natural beauty is unsatisfactory. ‘Inscape’ is the distinctive pattern perceived in Nature by the artist, the species of individually – distinctive beauty. ‘Instress’ is the effect on the artist’s mind of the perception of inscape . Both these terms are Hopkins own coinages ‘Inscape’ to Hopkins meant design or pattern. He found innumerable inscapes in nature patterns of shape, sound , light and color, all revealing the infinite energies of God. The countless forms of Nature are all unique separately inscaped by God.

Art is the expression of the artist’s inner vision. Art bears the imprint of the artist’s vision. The painter must, for instance, shape his colors and perspectives to his inner vision and must not be content with producing a copy of the surface material. Inscape is the very soul of art, in Hoplins’s view.
Poetry to Hopkins is a pattern, Poetry may be full of feelings, high thoughts, fine imagery and other virtues, but it’s essential for Hopkins lies in inscape. The shape or inscope of the speech sound is more important than the logical content. This was the reason for Hopkins synthetical difficulty and occasional eccentricity.
The devices employed by Hopkins have the effect of turning a merely logical sequence of words into a sculpted pattern of sound and sense. He uses compound adjectives which are always coupled with alliteration and often with internal rhyme:e.g. dappled –with-damson; dapple-down-drawn ‘Falcon’. Inversions of the word-order is frequent in Hopkins e.g. Your round me, roaming end instead of your roaming round me end; under be my boughs instead of be under my boughs.
By ‘instress’ Hopkins means the under-current of creative energy that supports and binds together the whole of the created world giving things shape from and meaning to the eye of the beholder. He sometimes attached the word instress to the network of association and feelings evoked in him by certain scenes or works of art.
By contemplation of simple objects-flowers’ trees’ streams and landscapes-Hopkins at times felt an ecstasy because he realized that the hidden energy(instress) moulding things into shapes ,patterns and colors(inscapes)was the very energy of God Himself.
Instress in art means to Hopkins the continuity and pressures of vision which binds and organizes every detail of a work of art to the artist’s vision. All the details of a medival cathedral, for example, though the works of many hands seem to be unstressed by a common vision. Eccentricity, oddity, obscurity in Hopkins’ Poetry
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